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THIS MONTH'S FEATURE ARTICLE
Engineers will be called upon to find solutions for the challenges the world will face in the 21st century. These articles highlight the diversity of the work which continues in the search for those solutions.

Optimal Growing Conditions For Sea Vegetables Studied
July 2020

Three species of vegetables from the sea could just be the new kale with the added benefit of a salty flavor. Researchers from Florida Atlantic University’s (FAU) Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute recently completed a 10-week study to determine the optimal growing conditions for three species of sea vegetables: sea asparagus (Salicornia bigelovii), sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum) and saltwort (Batis maritima). These sea vegetables are eaten in Europe, Asia and Hawaii and could soon be a great addition to salads, soups, pasta, rice and other dishes in the continental United States.


(On the left) Ikuko Fujisaki-Butler, Ph.D., and Megan Davis, Ph.D., harvesting sea vegetables with Paul Wills, Ph.D., and Richard Baptiste at FAU’s Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute’s Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture system. Credit: Brian Cousin, FAU's Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute.

These nutritious plants for human consumption do not require fresh water and instead are grown in salt water. These sea vegetables are halophyte plants or “salt-loving” plants, which is what gives them their salty flavor. Considered a vegetable, herb or an edible garnish, they are found in nature in the salt marshes and thrive in saltwater with the right balance of nutrients. They can be eaten raw, blanched, sautéed, or cooked in a dish.

According to information, the study, which is part of FAU’s Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture system project to optimize sustainability and aquaculture production, has been testing three different substrates to grow the sea vegetables: sand, clay pebbles, and water only. The work is an ambitious system that produces multiple species simultaneously and is designed according to the premise that one “species’ trash is another one’s treasure.” Greater sustainability has been the driver of aquaculture systems development at FAU’s Harbor Branch, leading to advances that have included minimizing both water use through recirculation techniques and power use via improved efficiency.

“Sea vegetables are a great source of minerals and would be a healthy addition to any meal,” said Paul Wills, Ph.D., principal investigator of the Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture system project, a research professor and associate director for research at FAU’s Harbor Branch, who is working with co-PI Megan Davis, Ph.D., a research professor, aquaculture and stock enhancement at FAU’s Harbor Branch. “We sent our recently harvested sea vegetables to the lab to be analyzed for proteins, fats, minerals, and carbohydrates. From our previous studies, we know that one serving will provide 1 gram of plant protein, no fat, and no cholesterol. Some varieties of halophyte plants contain iodine, which is an important element for health and the salt that they contain is similar to sea salt.”

The goal of the study is to demonstrate and identify the optimal growth criteria for the plants, determine markets, work with chefs to develop recipes, and understand consumers’ acceptance to the product. Researchers also will determine the economics of growing these plants and the market values. They plan to share this information with future producers to assist them with system technology, product development and marketing to generate a new aquaculture industry in Florida and elsewhere.

Sea vegetables effectively remove nutrients produced from marine fish, shrimp and other species grown in FAU’s Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture system. As the sea vegetables remove nutrients from the water, they in turn yield highly productive and desirable, albeit, underutilized crops. Sea vegetables are started from seeds or from cuttings, grow very quickly and are ready to harvest in 8 to 10 weeks.

The species in this land-based Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture System are fish, shrimp, urchins, oysters and macroalgae, also known as seaweed, and each is grown separately from the others. Connecting them all, however, is a network of filters and piping that enable circulation of the water and, in particular, the “waste” products. Each species represents a different trophic (or feeding) level in this food web construct, and although the fish and shrimp receive feed from outside the system, each subsequent species feeds on something the others leave behind.

Circulation occurs via a hub-and-spokes concept in which the hub is a computer-controlled filtration and distribution system and the spokes lead to the different culture areas. In the prototype system, all components are indoors with the exception of the macroalgae cultures, which require sunlight.

“Scientists, engineers and aquaculture technicians at FAU’s Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute carefully coordinated this study during a very challenging time in research due to COVID-19,” said James Sullivan, Ph.D., executive director of FAU’s Harbor Branch. “Their efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of successfully growing and harvesting nutritious and delicious sea vegetables using aquaculture while minimizing waste and maximizing efficiency and productivity.”

This project is supported by funds from the Aquaculture Specialty License Plate granted through the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institute Foundation.



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Optimal Growing Conditions For Sea Vegetables Studied
July 2020

Three species of vegetables from the sea could just be the new kale with the added benefit of a salty flavor.

VCU’s Medicines for All Institute Partners With Industry To Secure The Domestic Pharmaceutical Supply Chain
June 2020

To prevent domestic shortages of critical medications, the Medicines for All Institute, based in the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) College of Engineering, has joined forces with pharmaceutical industry leaders to bring…

New Report Released On Germicidal Ultraviolet (GUV) and How It Could Reduce The Spread of COVID-19
May 2020

In response to the COVID-19 pandemic and a wave of seemingly conflicting statements and opinions about the disinfection capabilities and safety of GUV, the Illuminating Engineering Society…

Experiments To Test Effects Of Space Conditions On Microbes
March 2020

On Saturday, Feb. 15, 2020, a rocket and spacecraft were launched from NASA’s Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia carrying tubes of bacteria and bacteriophage…

Women in STEM Breakfast Sponsored by Rolls-Royce
February 2020

Elizabeth Lindsey, Executive Director of Byte Back in Washington, DC, was honored recently with the Reaching for the Stars: Outstanding Women in STEM Award at the second annual…

New Study Looks At The Women Who Thrive In Engineering and Technology Education and Career Paths
January 2020

The new collaborative study between DiscoverE and Concord Evaluation Group, entitled Despite the Odds: Young Women Who Persist In Engineering, has uncovered a number of key factors…

NASA’s Webb Telescope To Reveal Milky Way’s Center
December 2019

NASA’s upcoming James Webb Space Telescope is designed to view the universe in infrared light…

Studying Movement Against A Current
November 2019

Going upstream, and against a current, involves a front-first downward tilt and then moving along a surface, shows new research…

Hazard and Disaster Research Network Seeks to Advance Innovation
October 2019

The Operations and Systems Engineering Extreme Event Research (OSEEER) network will advance basic science and engineering while also improving societal well-being.

Actuator Vibration Moves Tiny 3D-Printed Robots
September 2019

Robots are the size of the world’s smallest ant.

Manganese May Be To Blame For Lead In Water
August 2019

Research at Washington University in St. Louis has shown however, that in conjunction with certain other chemicals, naturally occurring manganese can lead to big changes in…

Large “Dead Zone” Forecasted For Chesapeake Bay
July 2019

This year, exceptionally high spring rainfall and streamflow is transporting nitrogen to tidal waters in amounts above the long-term average…


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